Combine one stick of the butter and 2 tablespoons of the sugar in a saucepan over medium-high heat, stirring regularly until the butter melts. Turn off the heat and stir in the buttermilk, mixing well to combine. Set aside.
Combine yeast and remaining 1 tablespoon sugar in a large bowl. Stir in the water and set aside in a warm place until the yeast is frothy and doubled in size, about 5 minutes. Add the buttermilk mixture to the bowl and stir to combine. Add 2 cups of the flour, the salt, and baking soda and stir to combine with a wooden spoon.
Add remaining flour about 1/2 cup at a time, stirring the mixture until you've formed a sticky dough. Cover the bowl with plastic wrap and let it sit in a warm place for about 30 minutes (if desired, refrigerate the dough for up to one day; remove from refrigerator and let rest on the counter for about 20 minutes before proceeding with the recipe).
While the dough rises, preheat oven to 375º F and grease two standard-sized muffin tins.
Turn the dough onto a floured surface and knead it several times until the dough is easy to work with. Divide the dough into 24 pieces roughly the same size. Working one at a time, divide the each piece of dough into three pieces. Roll each third into a small ball and nest all three together in one of the prepared muffin cups to create a clover leaf shape. Once finished shaping rolls, cover the muffin tins with plastic wrap and let the rolls rise until doubled in size, about 30 to 45 minutes.
Melt the remaining butter and brush the rolls generously before baking until golden brown, about 15 minutes. Serve warm.
If you plan to bake the rolls ahead of time and reheat right before dinner, reduce the baking time by about 2 minutes.